A common response to Brexit among British citizens living abroad has been in apply for dual nationality. However, each country in the EU-27 has different rules about whether dual citizenship is permitted, with conditions guiding this. For example, in Spain, the EU member state with the highest number of British residents, in law applying for citizenship would mean renouncing British citizenship.
Some of those taking part in the research have applied for dual nationality successfully. And we know of cases where people have applied for citizenship in their state of residence even when this is going to mean giving up their British citizenship. But the costs—practical, financial and emotional—mean that this route to securing futures is not open to all British citizens living abroad, and many have mixed feelings about taking this step.